Geographical Indications as Reputation, Quality and Characteristics Indications

Geographical Indication is part of intellectual property which is a sign that indicates the area of ??origin of goods and/or products which due to geographical environmental factors are able to provide a certain reputation, quality, and characteristics of the goods and / or products produced so as to increase the sale value of the goods and / or product. These geographical environmental factors can be:

1.         Natural factors

example: Java Sindoro-Sumbing Arabica coffee planted above 900 meters above sea level has a tobacco-scented characteristic because it is planted between tobacco plants on the Sindoro-Sumbing slope, Temanggung. These characteristics cannot be separated from natural factors, namely geographical location, soil acidity, and the influence of tobacco plants in the vicinity.

2.         Human factors

The purpose of the human factor is a technical factor. Example: silk weaving techniques and Jepara carving techniques.

3.         Combination of natural and human factors

Example: the quality of Sidoarjo Smoked Milkfish from East Java which has a distinctive taste and aroma. Sidoarjo smoked milkfish does not smell mud like milkfish in general. This is inseparable from natural factors where this is influenced by water quality and soil pH, the location where milkfish is cultivated. The cause of the symptoms of the smell of mud is a number of plankton that produce geosmin which when eaten by milkfish will have a muddy taste but that does not apply to Sidoarjo smoked milkfish which does not smell mud. Human factors also affect the process of drying, fertilizing, irrigating the soil for making ponds, breeding to the process of smoking the fish for 3-10 hours at a temperature of 80°C to get maximum results.

The right to a Geographical Indication is an exclusive right granted by the state to a registered holder of a Geographical Indication right, as long as the reputation, quality, and characteristics on which the protection of the Geographical Indication is based remains.

Based on the provisions of Article 53 paragraph (3) of Law No. 20 of 2016 concerning Trademarks and Geographical Indications, applications for registration of Geographical Indications can be submitted by:

1.         Institutions that represent the community in a particular geographical area that is commercializing an item and / or product in the form of: natural resources; (2). handicraft items; or (3). industrial output.

2.         Provincial or district / municipality regional government.

However, it is necessary to bear in mind that based on the provisions of Article 56 paragraph (1) of Law No. 20 of 2016 concerning Trademarks and Geographical Indications that applications for Geographical Indications cannot be registered if:

1.         they are contrary to state ideology, statutory regulations, morality, religion, decency, and public order;

2.         they are misleading or deceiving the public in terms of reputation, quality, characteristics, origin of the source, the process of making goods, and or their uses; and

3.         they use name that has been used as a variety of plants and used for varieties of similar plants, unless there is the addition of words that indicate similar geographical indications.

A registered geographical indication can also be deleted if the quality, reputation and characteristics of the product and / or goods are not maintained and violates the laws and regulations relating to geographical indications.

The benefits of the protection of Geographical Indications are as follows:

1.         Clarifying product identification and set production and process standards among stakeholders Geographical Indications;

2.         Avoiding fraudulent competition practices, providing consumer protection from misuse of the reputation of Geographical Indications;

3.         Ensuring the quality of Geographical Indication products as genuine products so as to give confidence to consumers;

4.         Fostering local producers, supporting coordination, and strengthening organizations of fellow right holders in order to create, provide, and strengthen the image of the name and reputation of the product;

5.         The production increase since it is explained in the Geographical Indications regarding the detail about a product that has a distinctive and unique character;

6.         Reputation of an area of ??Geographical Indications will also be elevated, in addition the Geographical Indications can also preserve natural beauty, traditional knowledge, and biological resources, this will certainly have an impact on the development of agro-tourism.

Considering that Indonesia is a country rich in natural resources and human creativity and so many benefits when an item / product has been labeled a Geographical Indication, then the potential for Geographical Indications in Indonesia is abundant too. However, until now, Indonesia only has 65 (sixty-five) Geographical Indication registrations with 6 (six) of them coming from outside the territory of Indonesia.

The following is a list of Geographical Indications that have been registered at the Directorate General of Intellectual Property (the DJKI)

1. Kintamani Bali Arabica Coffee

Place of origin: Bali

Registration Date: 5 December 2008

Registration No.: ID G 000000001

2. CHAMPAGNE

Country of Origin: France

Registration Date: 14 November 2009

Registration No.: ID G 000000002

3. Jepara carving furniture

Place of Origin: Central Java

Registration Date: 28 April 2010

Registration No: ID G 000000003

4. Muntok white pepper

Place of Origin: Bangka Belitung Islands

Registration Date: 28 April 2010

Registration No.: ID G 000000004

5. PISCO

Country of Origin: Peru

Registration Date: 1 July 2010

Registration No.: ID G 000000005

 

6. Gayo Arabica Coffee

Place of Origin: Aceh

Registration Date: 28 April 2010

Registration No: ID G 000000006

7. SUMEDANG black tobacco

Place of Origin: West Java

Registration Date: 25 April 2011

Registration No: ID G 000000007

8. SUMEDANG mole tobacco

Place of Origin: West Java

Registration Date: 25 April 2011

Registration No: ID G 000000008

9. PARMIGIANO REGGIANO

Country of Origin: Italy

Registration Date: 21 October 2011

Registration No: ID G 000000009

10. SUMBAWA Horse Milk

Place of Origin: West Nusa Tenggara

Registration Date: 15 December 2011

Registration No: ID G 000000010

11. KANGKUNG LOMBOK

Place of Origin: West Nusa Tenggara

Registration Date: 15 December 2011

Registration No: ID G 000000011

12. SUMBAWA HONEY

Place of Origin: West Nusa Tenggara

Registration Date: 15 December 2011

Registration No: ID G 000000012

13. KRAYAN ADAN RICE

Place of Origin: North Kalimantan

Registration Date: 6 January 2012

Registration No: ID G 000000013

14. FLORES BAJAWA arabica coffee

Place of Origin: East Nusa Tenggara

Registration Date: 28 March 2012

Registration No: ID G 000000014

15. DIENG Purwoceng

Place of Origin: Central Java

Registration Date: 20 July 2012

Registration No.: ID G 000000015

16. CARICA DIENG

Place of Origin: Central Java

Registration Date: 20 July 2012

Registration No: ID G 000000016

17. ALOR islands vanilla

Place of Origin: East Nusa Tenggara

Registration Date: 19 October 2012

Registration No: ID G 000000017

18. KALOSI ENREKANG arabica coffee

Place of Origin: South Sulawesi

Registration Date: 15 February 2013

Registration No: ID G 000000018

19. CILEMBU sweet potato

Place of Origin: West Java

Registration Date: 24 April 2013

Registration No: ID G 000000019

20. PONDOH SALAK OF SLEMAN JOGJA

Place of Origin: Special Region of YOGYAKARTA

Registration Date: 21 June 2013

Registration No: ID G 000000020

21. ACEH NILAM OIL

Place of Origin: Aceh

Registration Date: 10 September 2013

Registration No: ID G 000000021

22. JAVA PREANGER arabica coffee

Place of Origin: West Java

Registration Date: 10 September 2013

Registration No: ID G 000000022

23. JAVA IJEN-RAUNG arabica coffee

Place of Origin: East Java

Registration Date: 10 September 2013

Registration No: ID G 000000023

24. SIDOARJO smoked milkfish

Place of Origin: East Java

Registration Date: 9 October 2013

Registration No: ID G 000000024

25. TORAJA arabica coffee

Place of Origin: South Sulawesi

Registration Date: 9 October 2013

Registration No: ID G 000000025

26. LAMPUNG ROBUSTA COFFEE

Place of Origin: Lampung

Registration Date: 13 May 2014

Registration No: ID G 000000026

27. TEMANGGUNG SRINTHIL TOBACCO

Place of Origin: Central Java

Registration Date: 13 May 2014

Registration No: ID G 000000027

28. KUBU BALI cashew

Place of Origin: Bali

Registration Date: 21 July 2014

Registration No: ID G 000000028

29. KULONPROGO JOGJA coconut sugar

Place of Origin: Special Region of Yogyakarta

Registration Date: 21 July 2014

Registration No: ID G 000000029

30. JAVA SINDORO-SUMBING ARABICA COFFEE

Place of Origin: Central Java

Registration Date: 1 December 2014

Registration No: ID G 000000030

31. SUMATERA SIMALUNGUN ARABICA COFFEE

Place of Origin: North Sumatera

Registration Date: 20 February 2015

Registration No: ID G 000000031

32. TUNGKAL JAMBI LIBERICA COFFEE

Place of Origin: Jambi

Registration Date: 23 May 2015

Registration No: ID G 000000032

33. MINAHASA CLOVE

Place of Origin: North Sulawesi

Registration Date: 13 August 2015

Registration No: ID G 000000033

34. CIANJUR PANDANWANGI RICE

Place of Origin: West Java

Registration Date: 16 October 2015

Registration No: ID G 000000034

35. SEMENDO ROBUSTA COFFEE

Place of Origin: South Sumatera

Registration Date: 20 October 2015

Registration No: ID G 000000035

36. SIAU NUTMEG

Place of Origin: North Sulawesi

Registration Date: 20 November 2015

Registration No: ID G 000000036

37. JAVA PREANGER TEA

Place of Origin: West Java

Registration Date: 23 December 2015

Registration No: ID G 000000037

38. AMED BALI SALT

Place of Origin: Bali

Registration Date: 23 December 2015

Registration No: ID G 000000038

39. LAMPHUN BROCADE THAI SILK

Country of Origin: Thailand

Registration Date: 22 February 2016

Registration No: ID G 000000039

40. GAYO-ACEH TANGERINE

Place of Origin: Aceh

Registration Date: 22 March 2016

Registration No: ID G 000000040

41. RANGSANG MERANTI LIBERICA COFFEE

Place of Origin: Riau

Registration Date: 2 May 2016

Registration No: ID G 000000041

42. LAMPUNG BLACK PEPPER

Place of Origin: Lampung

Registration Date: 2 May 2016

Registration No: ID G 000000042

43. KOERINTJI CINNAMON

Place of Origin: Jambi

Registration Date: 26 May 2016

Registration No: ID G 000000043

44. TEQUILA

Country of Origin: Mexico

Registration Date: 18 July 2016

Registration No: ID G 000000044

45. GRANA PADANO

Country of Origin: Italy

Date of Registration: 18 July 2016

Registration No: ID G 000000045

46. BALI TUNUN GRINGSING

Place of Origin: Bali

Registration Date: 18 July 2016

Registration No: ID G 000000046

47. MANDAR SILK WOVEN

Place of Origin: West Sulawesi

Registration Date: 9 September 2016

Registration No: ID G 000000047

48. SUMATERA MANDAILING ARABICA COFFEE

Place of Origin: North Sumatera

Registration Date: 9 September 2016

Registration No: ID G 000000048

49. FAKFAK TOMANDIN NUTMEG

Place of Origin: West Papua

Registration Date: 9 September 2016

Registration No: ID G 000000049

50. SOE MOLLO ORANGE

Place of Origin: East Nusa Tenggara

Registration Date: 21 September 2016

Registration No: ID G 000000050

51. MOLOKU KIE RAHA CLOVE

Place of Origin: North Maluku

Registration Date: 21 September 2016

Registration No: ID G 000000051

52. MUNA CASHEW

Place of Origin: Southeast Sulawesi

Registration Date: 21 September 2016

Registration No: ID G 000000052

53. TEMANGGUNG ROBUSTA COFFEE

Place of Origin: Central Java

Registration Date: 6 December 2016

Registration No: ID G 000000053

54. SUKATALI SUMEDANG SAWO

Place of Origin: West Java

Registration Date: 14 December 2016

Registration No: ID G 000000054

55. EMPAT LAWANG ROBUSTA COFFEE

Place of Origin: South Sumatera

Registration Date: 10 February 2017

Registration No: ID G 000000055

56. SIKKA IKAT WEAVING

Place of Origin: East Nusa Tenggara

Registration Date: 8 March 2017

Registration No: ID G 000000056

57. KOMERING DUKU

Place of Origin: South Sumatera

Registration Date: 7 April 2017

Registration No: ID G 000000057

58. SUMATRA KOERINTJI ARABICA COFFEE

Place of Origin: Jambi

Registration Date: 17 April 2017

Registration No: ID G 000000058

59. PINOGU ROBUSTA COFFEE

Place of Origin: Gorontalo

Registration Date: 3 May 2017

Registration No: ID G 000000059

60. PUPUAN BALI ROBUSTA COFFEE

Place of Origin: Bali

Registration Date: 29 May 2017

Registration No: ID G 000000060

61. TANIMBAR IKAT WEAVING

Place of Origin: Maluku

Registration Date: 3 July 2017

Registration No: ID G 000000061

62. TAMBORA ROBUSTA COFFEE

Place of Origin: West Nusa Tenggara

Registration Date: 3 July 2017

Registration No: ID G 000000062

63. SUMATERA LINTONG ARABICA COFFEE

Place of Origin: North Sumatera

Registration Date: 21 December 2017

Registration No: ID G 000000063

64. KAPUAS HULU RAJA UNCAK RICE

Place of Origin: West Kalimantan

Registration Date: 28 February 2018

Registration No: ID G 000000064

65. FLORES MANGGARAI ARABICA COFFEE

Place of Origin: East Nusa Tenggara

Registration Date: 7 March 2018

Registration No: ID G 000000065

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